In Myanmar, unilateral ceasefires have been announced by the Myanmar Army (Tatmadaw) and a group of ethnic armed groups, known as the Northern Alliance, formed by the Arakan Army (AA), the Myanmar National Democratic Alliance Army (MNDAA) and the Ta`ang National Liberation Army (TNLA). The first unilateral ceasefire was announced by Tatmadaw on 21 December 2018. On September 9, 2019, the Northern Alliance announced its first ceasefire after the Tatmadaw extended the ceasefire a third time. So far, the two sides have announced five unilateral ceasefires (see table below). The many unilateral truces do not seem to make sense – they have not stopped the fighting, or even mitigated them. By the late 1980s, the Burmese Communist Party (CPB) had weakened considerably due to dwindling Chinese financial aid and internal wrangling. During the 1988 uprising, the CPB did not take the opportunity to invoke political change. A month later, the State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC), a military council, staged a coup. As a result, Wa and Kokang`s ethnic forces conducted a mutiny against the CPB and created the United Wa State Party (UWSP) and the National Democratic Alliance Army (NDAA).
 SLORC took the opportunity to organize a ceasefire with armed rebel groups that had just mutated, under a policy developed by Khin Nyunt, then head of the military secret services.  The agreement fell short of its national settlement, as seven of the 15 invited armed groups had not signed due to differences of opinion on who should include the trial and persistent distrust of Myanmar`s semi-civilian government and its still powerful army.  The unilateral ceasefire itself does not appear to be significant, as it has not yet stopped or even reduced the fighting. This is only a starting point for negotiations. Only bilateral ceasefire agreements can end the escalation of fighting in Rakhine State and beyond. There is no doubt that securing bilateral ceasefire agreements is essential to progress on the road to peace. As countries with a history of civil wars, the experience of conflict-ridred communities is essential to understanding and developing methods of conflict resolution and transformation. For example, forms of conflict in sub-national regions of Myanmar range from heavy artillery to small arms and light weapons (ALPC). In many communities, some rural bandits have access to small arms in armed robberies and deadly fighting with armed mobile tatmadaws in rural areas.